Peru is a country in South America that encompasses a section of the Amazon forest and Machu Picchu, an ancient Inca city on the heights of the Andes. The region around Machu Picchu, including the Sacred Valley, the Inca Trail and the colonial city of Cuzco, is rich in archeological sites. Lima, the capital, with a preserved colonial center and important collections of pre-Columbian art is located on the arid Pacific coast of Peru.